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Helena as alternative ports of refuge. The sailors were able to survive by obtaining fresh water and meat from the natives. In , a century and a half after the discovery of the Cape sea route, Jan van Riebeeck established a victualling station at the Cape of Good Hope , at what would become Cape Town , on behalf of the Dutch East India Company.

The eastward expansion of Dutch colonists ushered in a series of wars with the southwesterly migrating Xhosa tribe, known as the Xhosa Wars , as both sides competed for the pastureland necessary to graze their cattle near the Great Fish River.

Great Britain occupied Cape Town between and to prevent it from falling under the control of the French First Republic , which had invaded the Low Countries.

In the first two decades of the 19th century, the Zulu people grew in power and expanded their territory under their leader, Shaka. During the early s, many Dutch settlers departed from the Cape Colony , where they had been subjected to British control, in a series of migrant groups who came to be known as Voortrekkers , meaning "Pathfinders" or "Pioneers".

They migrated to the future Natal , Free State , and Transvaal regions. The discovery of diamonds in and gold in in the interior started the Mineral Revolution and increased economic growth and immigration.

This intensified British efforts to gain control over the indigenous peoples. The struggle to control these important economic resources was a factor in relations between Europeans and the indigenous population and also between the Boers and the British.

Following Lord Carnarvon 's successful introduction of federation in Canada , it was thought that similar political effort, coupled with military campaigns, might succeed with the African kingdoms, tribal areas and Boer republics in South Africa.

Among the obstacles were the presence of the independent states of the Boers and the Kingdom of Zululand and its army. The Zulu nation defeated the British at the Battle of Isandlwana.

Eventually, though, the war was lost, resulting in the termination of the Zulu nation's independence. The Boer Republics successfully resisted British encroachments during the First Boer War — using guerrilla warfare tactics, which were well suited to local conditions.

The British returned with greater numbers, more experience, and new strategy in the Second Boer War — but suffered heavy casualties through attrition ; nonetheless, they were ultimately successful.

Over 27, Boer women and children perished in the British concentration camps. Within the country, anti-British policies among white South Africans focused on independence.

During the Dutch and British colonial years, racial segregation was mostly informal, though some legislation was enacted to control the settlement and movement of native people, including the Native Location Act of and the system of pass laws.

Eight years after the end of the Second Boer War and after four years of negotiation, an act of the British Parliament South Africa Act granted nominal independence, while creating the Union of South Africa on 31 May The Union was a dominion that included the former territories of the Cape , Transvaal and Natal colonies, as well as the Orange Free State republic.

The Natives' Land Act of severely restricted the ownership of land by blacks; at that stage natives controlled only seven percent of the country.

The amount of land reserved for indigenous peoples was later marginally increased. In , the union was fully sovereign from the United Kingdom with the passage of the Statute of Westminster , which abolished the last powers of the British Government on the country.

In , the National Party was elected to power. It strengthened the racial segregation begun under Dutch and British colonial rule. Taking Canada 's Indian Act as a framework, [56] the nationalist government classified all peoples into three races and developed rights and limitations for each.

The legally institutionalised segregation became known as apartheid. While whites enjoyed the highest standard of living in all of Africa, comparable to First World Western nations, the black majority remained disadvantaged by almost every standard, including income, education, housing, and life expectancy.

The Freedom Charter , adopted in by the Congress Alliance , demanded a non-racial society and an end to discrimination.

On 31 May , the country became a republic following a referendum only open to white voters which narrowly passed; the British-dominated Natal province largely voted against the proposal.

As a concession to the Westminster system , the appointment of the president remained an appointment by parliament, and virtually powerless until P.

Botha 's Constitution Act of , which eliminated the office of Prime Minister and instated a near-unique "strong presidency" responsible to parliament.

Pressured by other Commonwealth of Nations countries, South Africa withdrew from the organisation in and rejoined it only in Despite opposition both within and outside the country, the government legislated for a continuation of apartheid.

These measures were later extended to international sanctions and the divestment of holdings by foreign investors.

In the late s, South Africa initiated a programme of nuclear weapons development. In the following decade, it produced six deliverable nuclear weapons.

The Mahlabatini Declaration of Faith, signed by Mangosuthu Buthelezi and Harry Schwarz in , enshrined the principles of peaceful transition of power and equality for all, the first of such agreements by black and white political leaders in South Africa.

Ultimately, FW de Klerk opened bilateral discussions with Nelson Mandela in for a transition of policies and government. In , the National Party government took the first step towards dismantling discrimination when it lifted the ban on the ANC and other political organisations.

It released Nelson Mandela from prison after 27 years' serving a sentence for sabotage. A negotiation process followed. With approval from the white electorate in a referendum , the government continued negotiations to end apartheid.

South Africa held its first universal elections in , which the ANC won by an overwhelming majority. It has been in power ever since.

In post-apartheid South Africa, unemployment remained high. While many blacks have risen to middle or upper classes, the overall unemployment rate of black people worsened between and by official metrics, but declined significantly using expanded definitions.

In May , riots left over 60 people dead. It is about the same size as Colombia , twice the size of France , three times as big as Japan , four times the size of Italy and five times the size of the United Kingdom.

To the north, the Great Karoo fades into the even drier and more arid Bushmanland, which eventually becomes the Kalahari desert in the very north-west of the country.

The mid-eastern, and highest part of the plateau is known as the Highveld. This relatively well-watered area is home to a great proportion of the country's commercial farmlands and contains its largest conurbation Gauteng.

The coastal belt, below the Great Escarpment, moving clockwise from the northeast, consists of the Limpopo Lowveld, which merges into the Mpumalanga Lowveld, below the Mpumalanga Drakensberg the eastern portion of the Great Escarpment.

The coastal belt below the south and south-western stretches of the Great Escarpment contains several ranges of Cape Fold Mountains which run parallel to the coast, separating the Great Escarpment from the ocean.

Note the course of the Great Escarpment to the north of these mountain ranges. The Little Karoo is historically, and still, famous for its ostrich farming around the town of Oudtshoorn.

The narrow coastal strip between the most seaward Cape Fold Mountain range i. It is famous for the most extensive areas of indigenous forests in South Africa a generally forest-poor country.

In the south-west corner of the country, the Cape Peninsula forms the southernmost tip of the coastal strip which borders the Atlantic Ocean and ultimately terminates at the country's border with Namibia at the Orange River.

The Cape Peninsula has a Mediterranean climate , making it and its immediate surrounds the only portion of Africa south of the Sahara which receives most of its rainfall in winter.

It is the country's legislative capital. The coastal belt to the north of the Cape Peninsula is bounded on the west by the Atlantic Ocean and the first row of north—south running Cape Fold Mountains to the east.

The most southerly portion of this coastal belt is known as the Swartland and Malmesbury Plain, which is an important wheat growing region, relying on winter rains.

The region further north is known as Namaqualand , [91] which becomes more and more arid as one approaches the Orange River. The little rain that falls tends to fall in winter, [90] which results in one of the world's most spectacular displays of flowers carpeting huge stretches of veld in spring August—September.

South Africa has a generally temperate climate , due in part to being surrounded by the Atlantic and Indian Oceans on three sides, by its location in the climatically milder Southern Hemisphere and due to the average elevation rising steadily towards the north towards the equator and further inland.

Due to this varied topography and oceanic influence, a great variety of climatic zones exist. The climatic zones range from the extreme desert of the southern Namib in the farthest northwest to the lush subtropical climate in the east along the border with Mozambique and the Indian Ocean.

Winters in South Africa occur between June and August. The extreme southwest has a climate remarkably similar to that of the Mediterranean Sea with wet winters and hot, dry summers, hosting the famous fynbos biome of shrubland and thicket.

This area also produces much of the wine in South Africa. This region is also particularly known for its wind, which blows intermittently almost all year.

The severity of this wind made passing around the Cape of Good Hope particularly treacherous for sailors, causing many shipwrecks.

Further east on the south coast, rainfall is distributed more evenly throughout the year, producing a green landscape. This area is popularly known as the Garden Route.

The Free State is particularly flat because it lies centrally on the high plateau. North of the Vaal River , the Highveld becomes better watered and does not experience subtropical extremes of heat.

Winters in this region are cold, although snow is rare. The high Drakensberg mountains, which form the south-eastern escarpment of the Highveld, offer limited skiing opportunities in winter.

The Prince Edward Islands have colder average annual temperatures, but Sutherland has colder extremes. The deep interior of mainland South Africa has the hottest temperatures: a temperature of South Africa signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 4 June , and became a party to the convention on 2 November Numerous mammals are found in the Bushveld including lions , African leopards , South African cheetahs , southern white rhinos , blue wildebeest , kudus , impalas , hyenas , hippopotamuses and South African giraffes.

South Africa houses many endemic species , among them the critically endangered riverine rabbit Bunolagus monticullaris in the Karoo.

Up to , more than species of fungi including lichen-forming species had been recorded. In at least some major South African ecosystems, an exceptionally high percentage of fungi are highly specific in terms of the plants with which they occur.

The most prevalent biome in South Africa is the grassland , particularly on the Highveld, where the plant cover is dominated by different grasses , low shrubs , and acacia trees , mainly camel-thorn Vachellia erioloba.

Vegetation becomes even more sparse towards the northwest due to low rainfall. There are several species of water-storing succulents , like aloes and euphorbias , in the very hot and dry Namaqualand area.

The grass and thorn savannah turns slowly into a bush savannah towards the north-east of the country, with denser growth. There are significant numbers of baobab trees in this area, near the northern end of Kruger National Park.

The fynbos biome, which makes up the majority of the area and plant life in the Cape floristic region , one of the six floral kingdoms , is located in a small region of the Western Cape and contains more than 9, of those species, making it among the richest regions on earth in terms of plant diversity.

Another uniquely South African flowering plant group is the genus Protea. There are around different species of Protea in South Africa.

While South Africa has a great wealth of flowering plants, only one percent of South Africa is forest, almost exclusively in the humid coastal plain of KwaZulu-Natal , where there are also areas of Southern Africa mangroves in river mouths.

There are even smaller reserves of forests that are out of the reach of fire, known as montane forests. Plantations of imported tree species are predominant, particularly the non-native eucalyptus and pine.

South Africa has lost a large area of natural habitat in the last four decades, primarily due to overpopulation, sprawling development patterns and deforestation during the 19th century.

South Africa is one of the worst affected countries in the world when it comes to invasion by alien species with many e.

The original temperate forest found by the first European settlers was exploited ruthlessly until only small patches remained.

Currently, South African hardwood trees like real yellowwood Podocarpus latifolius , stinkwood Ocotea bullata , and South African black ironwood Olea laurifolia are under government protection.

Statistics from the South African Department of Environmental Affairs show a record 1, rhinos have been killed in Climate change is expected to bring considerable warming and drying to much of this already semi-arid region , with greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as heat waves , flooding and drought.

The Cape Floral Region , being identified as one of the global biodiversity hotspots , will be hit very hard by climate change.

Drought, increased intensity and frequency of fire, and climbing temperatures are expected to push many rare species towards extinction.

South Africa has published two national climate change reports in and South Africa is a parliamentary republic , although unlike most such republics the President is both head of state and head of government , and depends for his tenure on the confidence of Parliament.

The executive, legislature and judiciary are all subject to the supremacy of the Constitution , and the superior courts have the power to strike down executive actions and acts of Parliament if they are unconstitutional.

The National Assembly , the lower house of Parliament, consists of members and is elected every five years by a system of party-list proportional representation.

The National Council of Provinces , the upper house, consists of ninety members, with each of the nine provincial legislatures electing ten members.

After each parliamentary election, the National Assembly elects one of its members as president; hence the President serves a term of office the same as that of the Assembly, normally five years.

No President may serve more than two terms in office. The President and the Cabinet may be removed by the National Assembly by a motion of no confidence.

In the most recent election , held on 8 May , the ANC won South Africa has no legally defined capital city. The fourth chapter of the Constitution of South Africa , states that "The seat of Parliament is Cape Town, but an Act of Parliament enacted in accordance with section 76 1 and 5 may determine that the seat of Parliament is elsewhere.

Cape Town , as the seat of Parliament, is the legislative capital; Pretoria , as the seat of the President and Cabinet, is the administrative capital; and Bloemfontein , as the seat of the Supreme Court of Appeal , is the judicial capital, while the Constitutional Court of South Africa sits in Johannesburg.

Most foreign embassies are located in Pretoria. Since , South Africa has had many thousands of popular protests, some violent, making it, according to one academic, the "most protest-rich country in the world".

South Africa scored well in the categories of Rule of Law , Transparency and Corruption, and Participation and Human Rights, but was let down by its relatively poor performance in Safety and Security.

The Constitution of South Africa is the supreme rule of law in the country. The primary sources of South African law are Roman-Dutch mercantile law and personal law with English Common law , as imports of Dutch settlements and British colonialism.

It was imported before the codification of European law into the Napoleonic Code and is comparable in many ways to Scots law.

This was followed in the 19th century by English law , both common and statutory. After unification in , South Africa had its own parliament which passed laws specific for South Africa, building on those previously passed for the individual member colonies.

The judicial system consists of the magistrates' courts , which hear lesser criminal cases and smaller civil cases; the High Court , which has divisions that serve as the courts of general jurisdiction for specific areas; the Supreme Court of Appeal , and the Constitutional Court , which is the highest court.

From April to March , on average 57 murders were committed each day in South Africa. Between and , there were more than xenophobic attacks against foreigners in South Africa.

After apartheid ended, South Africa was readmitted to the Commonwealth of Nations. The country is a member of the Group of 77 and chaired the organisation in Former South African President Jacob Zuma and former Chinese President Hu Jintao upgraded bilateral ties between the two countries on 24 August , when they signed the Beijing Agreement, which elevated South Africa's earlier "strategic partnership" with China to the higher level of "comprehensive strategic partnership" in both economic and political affairs, including the strengthening of exchanges between their respective ruling parties and legislatures.

South Africa is the only African country to have successfully developed nuclear weapons. It became the first country followed by Ukraine with nuclear capability to voluntarily renounce and dismantle its programme and in the process signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in Former president, FW de Klerk, maintained that South Africa had "never conducted a clandestine nuclear test.

Each of the nine provinces is governed by a unicameral legislature , which is elected every five years by party-list proportional representation.

The legislature elects a Premier as head of government, and the Premier appoints an Executive Council as a provincial cabinet.

The powers of provincial governments are limited to topics listed in the Constitution ; these topics include such fields as health, education, public housing and transport.

The provinces are in turn divided into 52 districts : 8 metropolitan and 44 district municipalities. The district municipalities are further subdivided into local municipalities.

The metropolitan municipalities, which govern the largest urban agglomerations, perform the functions of both district and local municipalities.

South Africa has a mixed economy , the second largest in Africa after Nigeria. Despite this, South Africa is still burdened by a relatively high rate of poverty and unemployment, and is also ranked in the top ten countries in the world for income inequality , [] [] [] measured by the Gini coefficient.

In , 71 percent of net wealth are held by 10 percent richest of the population, whereas 60 percent of the poorest held only 7 percent of the net wealth and the Gini coefficient was 0.

Unlike most of the world's poor countries, South Africa does not have a thriving informal economy. After , government policy brought down inflation , stabilised public finances, and some foreign capital was attracted, however growth was still subpar.

In August , South Africa was ranked as the top African Country of the Future by fDi magazine based on the country's economic potential , labour environment, cost-effectiveness, infrastructure, business friendliness, and foreign direct investment strategy.

South Africa is a popular tourist destination, and a substantial amount of revenue comes from tourism. During —, the number of formal jobs decreased and informal jobs increased; overall unemployment worsened.

The government's Black Economic Empowerment BEE policies have drawn criticism from Neva Makgetla, lead economist for research and information at the Development Bank of Southern Africa , for focusing "almost exclusively on promoting individual ownership by black people [which] does little to address broader economic disparities, though the rich may become more diverse.

Along with many African nations, South Africa has been experiencing a " brain drain " in the past 20 years.

According to several surveys, [] [] there has been a reverse in brain drain following the global financial crisis of — and expiration of foreign work contracts.

The Human Rights Watch reported on 26 August about foreign national truck drivers being subjected to deadly attacks carried out by South African truck drivers.

The organization urged the South African government to take immediate actions ensuring the safety of the foreign national truck drivers putting up with violence, harassment, intimidation, stoning, bombing, and shooting, by local truck drivers in the country.

Several important scientific and technological developments have originated in South Africa. The first human-to-human heart transplant was performed by cardiac surgeon Christiaan Barnard at Groote Schuur Hospital in December , Max Theiler developed a vaccine against yellow fever , Allan McLeod Cormack pioneered X-ray computed tomography CT scan , and Aaron Klug developed crystallographic electron microscopy techniques.

With the exception of that of Barnard, all of these advancements were recognised with Nobel Prizes. Sydney Brenner won most recently, in , for his pioneering work in molecular biology.

Mark Shuttleworth founded an early Internet security company Thawte , that was subsequently bought out by world-leader VeriSign.

Despite government efforts to encourage entrepreneurship in biotechnology , information technology and other high technology fields, no other notable groundbreaking companies have been founded in South Africa.

It is the expressed objective of the government to transition the economy to be more reliant on high technology, based on the realisation that South Africa cannot compete with Far Eastern economies in manufacturing, nor can the republic rely on its mineral wealth in perpetuity.

South Africa has cultivated a burgeoning astronomy community. Two distinctive features of the South African water sector are the policy of free basic water and the existence of water boards , which are bulk water supply agencies that operate pipelines and sell water from reservoirs to municipalities.

These features have led to significant problems concerning the financial sustainability of service providers, leading to a lack of attention to maintenance.

Different methods of transport in South Africa include roads, railways, airports, water, and pipelines for petroleum oil.

The majority of people in South Africa use informal minibus taxis as their main mode of transport. BRT has been implemented in some South African cities in an attempt to provide more formalised and safer public transport services.

These systems have been widely criticised due to their large capital and operating costs. A "freeway" is different from most countries as certain things are forbidden which include certain motorcycles, no hand signals, and motor tricycles.

South Africa has many major ports including Cape Town, Durban , and Port Elizabeth that allow ships and other boats to pass through, some carrying passengers and some carrying petroleum tankers.

South Africa is a nation of about 55 million people of diverse origins, cultures, languages, and religions.

The last census was held in , with a more recent intercensal national survey conducted in Statistics South Africa asks people to describe themselves in the census in terms of five racial population groups.

South Africa hosts a sizeable refugee and asylum seeker population. According to the World Refugee Survey , published by the US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants , this population numbered approximately , in In this regard it is fourth only to Bolivia , India , and Zimbabwe in number.

While all the languages are formally equal, some languages are spoken more than others. According to the census, the three most spoken first languages are Zulu Many of the unofficial languages of the San and Khoikhoi people contain regional dialects stretching northwards into Namibia and Botswana, and elsewhere.

These people, who are a physically distinct population from other Africans, have their own cultural identity based on their hunter-gatherer societies.

They have been marginalised to a great extent, and the remainder of their languages are in danger of becoming extinct. French is spoken in South Africa by migrants from Francophone Africa.

According to the census, Christians accounted for Christian category includes Zion Christian Muslims accounted for 1.

African initiated churches formed the largest of the Christian groups. It was believed that many of the persons who claimed no affiliation with any organised religion adhered to traditional African religion.

These healers use a combination of ancestral spiritual beliefs and a belief in the spiritual and medicinal properties of local fauna and flora, commonly known as muti , to facilitate healing in clients.

Many peoples have syncretic religious practices combining Christian and indigenous influences.

South African Muslims comprise mainly of those who are described as Coloureds and those who are described as Indians.

They have been joined by black or white South African converts as well as others from other parts of Africa.

South Africa is also home to a substantial Jewish population , descended from European Jews who arrived as a minority among other European settlers.

This population peaked in the s at ,, though only around 67, remain today, the rest having emigrated, mostly to Israel. Even so, these numbers make the Jewish community in South Africa the twelfth largest in the world.

The adult literacy rate in was Learners have twelve years of formal schooling, from grade 1 to Grade R, or grade 0, is a pre-primary foundation year.

The National Senior Certificate NSC examination takes place at the end of grade 12 and is necessary for tertiary studies at a South African university.

Public universities in South Africa are divided into three types: traditional universities, which offer theoretically oriented university degrees; universities of technology formerly called " technikons " , which offer vocational oriented diplomas and degrees; and comprehensive universities, which offer both types of qualification.

There are 23 public universities in South Africa: 11 traditional universities, 6 universities of technology and 6 comprehensive universities.

Under apartheid, schools for black people were subject to discrimination through inadequate funding and a separate syllabus called Bantu Education which was only designed to give them sufficient skills to work as labourers.

In , South Africa started reforming its tertiary education system, merging and incorporating small universities into larger institutions, and renaming all tertiary education institutions "university".

By , 1. The link between HIV, a virus spread primarily by sexual contact, and AIDS was long denied by former president Thabo Mbeki and his health minister Manto Tshabalala-Msimang , who insisted that the many deaths in the country are due to malnutrition , and hence poverty, and not HIV.

After the general elections , former president Jacob Zuma appointed Dr Aaron Motsoaledi as the new health minister and committed his government to increasing funding for and widening the scope of HIV treatment, [] and by , South Africa had made significant progress, with the widespread availability of antiretroviral drugs resulted in an increase in life expectancy from The South African black majority still has a substantial number of rural inhabitants who lead largely impoverished lives.

It is among these people that cultural traditions survive most strongly; as blacks have become increasingly urbanised and Westernised , aspects of traditional culture have declined.

Members of the middle class, who are predominantly white but whose ranks include growing numbers of black, coloured and Indian people, [] have lifestyles similar in many respects to that of people found in Western Europe, North America and Australasia.

South African art includes the oldest art objects in the world, which were discovered in a South African cave, and dated from 75, years ago.

New forms of art evolved in the mines and townships: a dynamic art using everything from plastic strips to bicycle spokes.

The Dutch-influenced folk art of the Afrikaner trekboers and the urban white artists, earnestly following changing European traditions from the s onwards, also contributed to this eclectic mix which continues to evolve today.

South African literature emerged from a unique social and political history. One of the first well known novels written by a black author in an African language was Solomon Thekiso Plaatje 's Mhudi , written in During the s, Drum magazine became a hotbed of political satire, fiction, and essays, giving a voice to urban black culture.

When awarding the prize, the Swedish Academy stated that Coetzee "in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider.

Olive Schreiner 's The Story of an African Farm was a revelation in Victorian literature : it is heralded by many as introducing feminism into the novel form.

Breyten Breytenbach was jailed for his involvement with the guerrilla movement against apartheid.

While South Africa's many broadcasters and publications reflect the diversity of the population as a whole, the most commonly used language is English.

However, all ten other official languages are represented to some extent or another. There is great diversity in South African music.

Black musicians have developed a unique style called Kwaito , that is said to have taken over radio, television, and magazines.

More famous traditional musicians include Ladysmith Black Mambazo , while the Soweto String Quartet performs classic music with an African flavour.

Afrikaans music covers multiple genres, such as the contemporary Steve Hofmeyr , the punk rock band Fokofpolisiekar , and the singer-songwriter Jeremy Loops.

South African popular musicians that have found international success include Johnny Clegg , rap-rave duo Die Antwoord , and rock band Seether.

Although few South African film productions are known outside South Africa itself, many foreign films have been produced about South Africa.

Arguably, the most high-profile film portraying South Africa in recent years was District 9.

South African cuisine is diverse; foods from many cultures are enjoyed by all and especially marketed to tourists who wish to sample the large variety available.

South African cuisine is heavily meat-based and has spawned the distinctively South African social gathering known as the braai , a variation of the barbecue.

South Africa has also developed into a major wine producer, with some of the best vineyards lying in valleys around Stellenbosch , Franschhoek , Paarl and Barrydale.

South Africa's most popular sports are association football , rugby union and cricket. Although football soccer commands the greatest following among the youth, other sports like basketball, surfing and skateboarding are increasingly popular.

Association football is the most popular sport in South Africa. South Africa first won the Rugby World Cup , which it hosted.

They went on to win the tournament again in and in It followed the Rugby World Cup by hosting the African Cup of Nations , with the national team, Bafana Bafana , going on to win the tournament.

South Africa's national blind cricket team also went on to win the inaugural edition of the Blind Cricket World Cup in In , Oscar Pistorius became the first double amputee sprinter to compete at the Olympic Games in London.

In golf, Gary Player is generally regarded as one of the greatest golfers of all time, having won the Career Grand Slam , one of five golfers to have done so.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Republic of South Africa. For the geographical area, see Southern Africa.

For other uses, see South Africa disambiguation. Southernmost country in Africa. Coat of arms. Show globe. Show map of Africa.

Pretoria executive [2] Cape Town legislative [2] Bloemfontein judicial [2] [3]. Languages with special status [5].

See also: Official names of South Africa. Main article: History of South Africa. See also: Portuguese discoveries.

Further information: History of South Africa —present. Main article: Geography of South Africa. Main article: Climate of South Africa.

Biodiversity of South Africa. King protea , national flower. Fynbos , Cape Floristic Region. Blue crane , national bird.

Flowers in the West Coast National Park. See also: Crime in South Africa. Main article: Foreign relations of South Africa. Main article: Provinces of South Africa.

Main article: Economy of South Africa. Main article: Tourism in South Africa. Main article: Science and technology in South Africa.

Main article: Water supply and sanitation in South Africa. Main article: Transport in South Africa. Main article: Demographics of South Africa.

Main article: Languages of South Africa. Zulu Xhosa English 9. Northern Sotho 9. Tswana 8. Southern Sotho 7.

Tsonga 4. Swazi 2. Venda 2. Southern Ndebele 2. None dominant. Main article: Religion in South Africa.

Religion in South Africa [] religion percent Protestant. Main article: Education in South Africa. Main article: Culture of South Africa.

Main article: South African cuisine. Main article: Sport in South Africa. South Africa portal Africa portal. Constitutional Court of South Africa.

Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 15 June Retrieved 18 June Retrieved 30 October Statistics South Africa. Archived PDF from the original on 29 July Retrieved 29 July Pretoria: Statistics South Africa.

Archived PDF from the original on 13 May International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 28 June World Bank. Retrieved 25 September United Nations Development Programme.

Retrieved 9 December April Archived from the original on 19 July Retrieved 14 June South African Maritime Safety Authority.

Retrieved 16 June The World Factbook. BBC News. Retrieved 10 August Geography: An Integrated Approach. Nelson Thornes.

Retrieved 24 August International Studies Review. Retrieved 25 August South Africa is more than just a regional power; it is currently the most developed and economically powerful country in Africa, and now it is able to use that influence in Africa more than during the days of apartheid white rule , when it was ostracised.

Retrieved 30 May Archived from the original PDF on 19 December Johannesburg: The Elusive Metropolis. Durham: Duke University Press.

Mzansi is another black urban vernacular term popular with the youth and standing for South Africa. Deaf Federation of South Africa.

Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 15 January Retrieved 18 February Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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These systems have been widely criticised due to their large capital and operating costs. A "freeway" is different from most countries as certain things are forbidden which include certain motorcycles, no hand signals, and motor tricycles.

South Africa has many major ports including Cape Town, Durban , and Port Elizabeth that allow ships and other boats to pass through, some carrying passengers and some carrying petroleum tankers.

South Africa is a nation of about 55 million people of diverse origins, cultures, languages, and religions. The last census was held in , with a more recent intercensal national survey conducted in Statistics South Africa asks people to describe themselves in the census in terms of five racial population groups.

South Africa hosts a sizeable refugee and asylum seeker population. According to the World Refugee Survey , published by the US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants , this population numbered approximately , in In this regard it is fourth only to Bolivia , India , and Zimbabwe in number.

While all the languages are formally equal, some languages are spoken more than others. According to the census, the three most spoken first languages are Zulu Many of the unofficial languages of the San and Khoikhoi people contain regional dialects stretching northwards into Namibia and Botswana, and elsewhere.

These people, who are a physically distinct population from other Africans, have their own cultural identity based on their hunter-gatherer societies.

They have been marginalised to a great extent, and the remainder of their languages are in danger of becoming extinct. French is spoken in South Africa by migrants from Francophone Africa.

According to the census, Christians accounted for Christian category includes Zion Christian Muslims accounted for 1.

African initiated churches formed the largest of the Christian groups. It was believed that many of the persons who claimed no affiliation with any organised religion adhered to traditional African religion.

These healers use a combination of ancestral spiritual beliefs and a belief in the spiritual and medicinal properties of local fauna and flora, commonly known as muti , to facilitate healing in clients.

Many peoples have syncretic religious practices combining Christian and indigenous influences. South African Muslims comprise mainly of those who are described as Coloureds and those who are described as Indians.

They have been joined by black or white South African converts as well as others from other parts of Africa.

South Africa is also home to a substantial Jewish population , descended from European Jews who arrived as a minority among other European settlers.

This population peaked in the s at ,, though only around 67, remain today, the rest having emigrated, mostly to Israel.

Even so, these numbers make the Jewish community in South Africa the twelfth largest in the world.

The adult literacy rate in was Learners have twelve years of formal schooling, from grade 1 to Grade R, or grade 0, is a pre-primary foundation year.

The National Senior Certificate NSC examination takes place at the end of grade 12 and is necessary for tertiary studies at a South African university.

Public universities in South Africa are divided into three types: traditional universities, which offer theoretically oriented university degrees; universities of technology formerly called " technikons " , which offer vocational oriented diplomas and degrees; and comprehensive universities, which offer both types of qualification.

There are 23 public universities in South Africa: 11 traditional universities, 6 universities of technology and 6 comprehensive universities.

Under apartheid, schools for black people were subject to discrimination through inadequate funding and a separate syllabus called Bantu Education which was only designed to give them sufficient skills to work as labourers.

In , South Africa started reforming its tertiary education system, merging and incorporating small universities into larger institutions, and renaming all tertiary education institutions "university".

By , 1. The link between HIV, a virus spread primarily by sexual contact, and AIDS was long denied by former president Thabo Mbeki and his health minister Manto Tshabalala-Msimang , who insisted that the many deaths in the country are due to malnutrition , and hence poverty, and not HIV.

After the general elections , former president Jacob Zuma appointed Dr Aaron Motsoaledi as the new health minister and committed his government to increasing funding for and widening the scope of HIV treatment, [] and by , South Africa had made significant progress, with the widespread availability of antiretroviral drugs resulted in an increase in life expectancy from The South African black majority still has a substantial number of rural inhabitants who lead largely impoverished lives.

It is among these people that cultural traditions survive most strongly; as blacks have become increasingly urbanised and Westernised , aspects of traditional culture have declined.

Members of the middle class, who are predominantly white but whose ranks include growing numbers of black, coloured and Indian people, [] have lifestyles similar in many respects to that of people found in Western Europe, North America and Australasia.

South African art includes the oldest art objects in the world, which were discovered in a South African cave, and dated from 75, years ago.

New forms of art evolved in the mines and townships: a dynamic art using everything from plastic strips to bicycle spokes.

The Dutch-influenced folk art of the Afrikaner trekboers and the urban white artists, earnestly following changing European traditions from the s onwards, also contributed to this eclectic mix which continues to evolve today.

South African literature emerged from a unique social and political history. One of the first well known novels written by a black author in an African language was Solomon Thekiso Plaatje 's Mhudi , written in During the s, Drum magazine became a hotbed of political satire, fiction, and essays, giving a voice to urban black culture.

When awarding the prize, the Swedish Academy stated that Coetzee "in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider.

Olive Schreiner 's The Story of an African Farm was a revelation in Victorian literature : it is heralded by many as introducing feminism into the novel form.

Breyten Breytenbach was jailed for his involvement with the guerrilla movement against apartheid. While South Africa's many broadcasters and publications reflect the diversity of the population as a whole, the most commonly used language is English.

However, all ten other official languages are represented to some extent or another. There is great diversity in South African music.

Black musicians have developed a unique style called Kwaito , that is said to have taken over radio, television, and magazines.

More famous traditional musicians include Ladysmith Black Mambazo , while the Soweto String Quartet performs classic music with an African flavour.

Afrikaans music covers multiple genres, such as the contemporary Steve Hofmeyr , the punk rock band Fokofpolisiekar , and the singer-songwriter Jeremy Loops.

South African popular musicians that have found international success include Johnny Clegg , rap-rave duo Die Antwoord , and rock band Seether.

Although few South African film productions are known outside South Africa itself, many foreign films have been produced about South Africa.

Arguably, the most high-profile film portraying South Africa in recent years was District 9. South African cuisine is diverse; foods from many cultures are enjoyed by all and especially marketed to tourists who wish to sample the large variety available.

South African cuisine is heavily meat-based and has spawned the distinctively South African social gathering known as the braai , a variation of the barbecue.

South Africa has also developed into a major wine producer, with some of the best vineyards lying in valleys around Stellenbosch , Franschhoek , Paarl and Barrydale.

South Africa's most popular sports are association football , rugby union and cricket. Although football soccer commands the greatest following among the youth, other sports like basketball, surfing and skateboarding are increasingly popular.

Association football is the most popular sport in South Africa. South Africa first won the Rugby World Cup , which it hosted.

They went on to win the tournament again in and in It followed the Rugby World Cup by hosting the African Cup of Nations , with the national team, Bafana Bafana , going on to win the tournament.

South Africa's national blind cricket team also went on to win the inaugural edition of the Blind Cricket World Cup in In , Oscar Pistorius became the first double amputee sprinter to compete at the Olympic Games in London.

In golf, Gary Player is generally regarded as one of the greatest golfers of all time, having won the Career Grand Slam , one of five golfers to have done so.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Republic of South Africa. For the geographical area, see Southern Africa.

For other uses, see South Africa disambiguation. Southernmost country in Africa. Coat of arms. Show globe. Show map of Africa. Pretoria executive [2] Cape Town legislative [2] Bloemfontein judicial [2] [3].

Languages with special status [5]. See also: Official names of South Africa. Main article: History of South Africa. See also: Portuguese discoveries.

Further information: History of South Africa —present. Main article: Geography of South Africa. Main article: Climate of South Africa.

Biodiversity of South Africa. King protea , national flower. Fynbos , Cape Floristic Region. Blue crane , national bird.

Flowers in the West Coast National Park. See also: Crime in South Africa. Main article: Foreign relations of South Africa. Main article: Provinces of South Africa.

Main article: Economy of South Africa. Main article: Tourism in South Africa. Main article: Science and technology in South Africa.

Main article: Water supply and sanitation in South Africa. Main article: Transport in South Africa.

Main article: Demographics of South Africa. Main article: Languages of South Africa. Zulu Xhosa English 9.

Northern Sotho 9. Tswana 8. Southern Sotho 7. Tsonga 4. Swazi 2. Venda 2. Southern Ndebele 2. None dominant. Main article: Religion in South Africa.

Religion in South Africa [] religion percent Protestant. Main article: Education in South Africa. Main article: Culture of South Africa.

Main article: South African cuisine. Main article: Sport in South Africa. South Africa portal Africa portal.

Constitutional Court of South Africa. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 15 June Retrieved 18 June Retrieved 30 October Statistics South Africa.

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Retrieved 28 June World Bank. Retrieved 25 September United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 9 December April Archived from the original on 19 July Retrieved 14 June South African Maritime Safety Authority.

Retrieved 16 June The World Factbook. BBC News. Retrieved 10 August Geography: An Integrated Approach. Nelson Thornes.

Retrieved 24 August International Studies Review. Retrieved 25 August South Africa is more than just a regional power; it is currently the most developed and economically powerful country in Africa, and now it is able to use that influence in Africa more than during the days of apartheid white rule , when it was ostracised.

Retrieved 30 May Archived from the original PDF on 19 December Johannesburg: The Elusive Metropolis. Durham: Duke University Press.

Mzansi is another black urban vernacular term popular with the youth and standing for South Africa. Deaf Federation of South Africa.

Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 15 January Retrieved 18 February Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Stellenbosch University. Retrieved 5 September Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. Retrieved 19 June An Encyclopedia of World History 5th ed.

Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Stone age Africa: an outline of prehistory in Africa reprint ed. Negro Universities Press. Retrieved 21 February In , during a brief visit to the Transvaal, I myself found a number of pebble tools in some of the terrace gravels of the Vaal River, and similar finds have been recorded by Wayland, who visited South Africa, and by van Riet Lowe and other South African prehistorians.

The encyclopedia of the British Empire the first encyclopedic record of the greatest empire in the history of the world ed. London: Rankin.

Douglas; Stead, Alfred Nations of the Modern World: Ceylon ed. Frederick A Praeger, Publishers.

Claremont: David Philip Pty Ltd. West Chester University of Pennsylvania. Campbell, Heather-Ann ed. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

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Ohio University Press. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group. The War for Africa: Twelve months that transformed a continent. Max Price.

Body Type. Search 68 Cars. Car Insurance See how you can buy and save on your car insurance premium. Read More. Car Finance Find out about the ins and outs of financing a new or used vehicle.

Get a History Report. Ask AutoTrader Got questions about cars? AskAutoTrader — our experts are waiting for you! Ask a Question.

Are you one of those people who has mourned the demise of the old Defender? Then we have the best news ever for you! An all-new vehicle called the Grenadier is on its way to South Africa and, while it looks and performs like the old Defender, it is said to be an even better vehicle.

The new Mazda BT has been revealed to the globe and specification of the Australian model announced. So, is it any good? We took the baby-SUV from Suzuki on a little road trip to see if it's a winner.

And, to ensure genuine abilities and eye-watering performance, they roped in some help from their sibling company, Ferrari.

In the World Bank Group 's report Doing Business , it was ranked rd of as regards 'ease of doing business', a composite index which takes into account regulations that enhance business activity and those that restrict it.

Bangui is the transport hub of the Central African Republic. As of , eight roads connected the city to other main towns in the country, Cameroon , Chad and South Sudan ; of these, only the toll roads are paved.

During the rainy season from July to October, some roads are impassable. River ferries sail from the river port at Bangui to Brazzaville and Zongo.

The river can be navigated most of the year between Bangui and Brazzaville. Since at least there have been plans to connect Bangui by rail to the Transcameroon Railway.

The Central African Republic primarily uses hydroelectricity as there are few other resources for energy and power. Presently, the Central African Republic has active television services, radio stations, internet service providers , and mobile phone carriers ; Socatel is the leading provider for both internet and mobile phone access throughout the country.

Public education in the Central African Republic is free and is compulsory from ages 6 to The two institutions of higher education in the Central African Republic are the University of Bangui , a public university located in Bangui, which includes a medical school ; and Euclid University , an international university.

The largest hospitals in the country are located in the Bangui district. As a member of the World Health Organization , the Central African Republic receives vaccination assistance, such as a intervention for the prevention of a measles epidemic.

Women's health is poor in the Central African Republic. As of [update] , the country had the 4th highest maternal mortality rate in the world.

Malaria is endemic in the Central African Republic, and one of the leading causes of death. State Department alleged that major human rights abuses such as extrajudicial executions by security forces, torture , beatings and rape of suspects and prisoners occurred with impunity.

It also alleged harsh and life-threatening conditions in prisons and detention centers, arbitrary arrest , prolonged pretrial detention and denial of a fair trial , restrictions on freedom of movement, official corruption , and restrictions on workers' rights.

The State Department report also cites widespread mob violence , the prevalence of female genital mutilation , discrimination against women and Pygmies , human trafficking , forced labor , and child labor.

Violence against children and women in relation to accusations of witchcraft has also been cited as a serious problem in the country.

Freedom of speech is addressed in the country's constitution , but there have been incidents of government intimidation of the media.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Country in Central Africa. For the region in the Philippines, see Cordillera Administrative Region.

For the vehicle type, see car. For other uses, see CAR disambiguation. Coat of arms. Show globe. Show map of Africa. Main article: History of the Central African Republic.

Main article: Arab slave trade. Further information: Central African Empire. Main article: Geography of the Central African Republic.

Main article: Wildlife of the Central African Republic. Main article: Climate of the Central African Republic. Main article: Demographics of the Central African Republic.

Main article: Religion in the Central African Republic. Main article: Languages of the Central African Republic.

Main article: Media of the Central African Republic. See also: Central African Republic at the Olympics. Main article: Economy of the Central African Republic.

See also: Transportation in the Central African Republic. See also: Energy in the Central African Republic.

See also: Communications in the Central African Republic. Main article: Education in the Central African Republic. Main article: Health in the Central African Republic.

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Others pointed out that the repeal of the Population Registration Act in removed any legal basis for specifying 'race'. His Click Stationery Office. Retrieved 23 April Xhosa Archived from the original on 9 Https://model3d.co/jackpot-party-casino-online/susi-kentikian-instagram.php Dias continued down the western coast of southern Africa.

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